Thursday, January 31, 2008

Northern temperate zone
also see Self-control
In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally subtle: warm or cool, rather than extreme hot or cold. However, a temperate climate can have very unpredictable weather.
The north temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Cancer (at about 23.5 degrees north latitude,) to the Arctic Circle (at approximately 66.5 degrees north latitude.) The south temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Capricorn (at approximately 23.5 degrees south latitude,) to the Antarctic Circle (at approximately 66.5 degrees south latitude.)
Within these borders there are many climate types, which are generally grouped into two categories: continental and maritime.
The maritime climate is affected by the oceans, which help to sustain somewhat stable temperatures throughout the year. In temperate zones the prevailing winds are from the west, thus the western edge of temperate continents most commonly experience this maritime climate. Such regions include Western Europe, especially in Ireland and the UK; and western North America at latitudes between 40° and 60° north (65°N in Europe).
The continental climate is usually situated inland, with warmer summers and colder winters. Heat loss and reception are aided by extensive land mass. In North America, the Rocky Mountains act as a climate barrier to the maritime air blowing from the west, creating a continental climate to the east. In Europe, the maritime climate is able to stabilize inland temperature, because the major mountain range - the Alps - is oriented east-west.
The majority of the world's human population resides in temperate zones, especially in the northern hemisphere.
For the history of the term, see geographical zone

Wednesday, January 30, 2008

George Meikle Kemp
George Meikle Kemp (born 1795 in Moorfoot, Peeblesshire, Scotland; died March 6, 1844 in Edinburgh) was a Scottish joiner, draftsman, and self-taught architect.
After the death of the Scottish author Sir Walter Scott, forty-five year old Kemp entered a competition for the design of the Scott Monument, under the pseudonym "John Morvo". Kemp had feared his lack of architectural qualifications and reputation would disqualify him, but his design (which was similar to an unsuccessful one he had earlier submitted for the design of Glasgow Cathedral) was popular with the competition's judges, and in 1838 Kemp was awarded the contract to construct the monument.
Kemp did not live to see the completion of his great work, however. One foggy evening, when walking home from the site, he fell into the Union Canal and drowned.

Tuesday, January 29, 2008

The Ramban Synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת הרמב"ן‎) is the oldest active synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem. It was founded by Nahmanides (Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, whose name is often abbreviated as Ramban) in 1267. Today it is located at the corner of Ha-Yehudim Street and the square in the Jewish Quarter (the Rova).
Ramban Synagogue

13th century
In 1586, the synagogue was closed under the order of the Turkish governor of Jerusalem. Subsequently, the Sephardi community established their center in the adjacent place, where the academy belonging to the tanna Yochanan ben Zakai was said to have stood during the Second Temple period. Today the Yochanan ben Zakai Synagogue stands there.

19th century
Over the years, the building has been the home to the Sephardi community, was converted into a mosque after being confiscated by a Mufti, and was used as a flour mill and a cheese factory. Today it is used by the Ashkenazi community.
After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the building was destroyed by the Arab Legion. As a result of the 1967 Six-Day War, Jews regained their right to the property, and 700 years after the Ramban revived the ancient building, the synagogue was reopened.

Monday, January 28, 2008

Edict of MilanEdict of Milan
The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. The letter was issued in 313, shortly after the conclusion of the Diocletian Persecution. Tim Barnes has argued repeatedly for the term "Edict of Milan" to be dropped, since there never was any edict issued from Milan [see T.D. Barnes in Scripta Classica Israelica for 2002]. While it is true that Constantine and Licinius must have discussed religious policy when they met at Milan in February 313, the text usually called the Edict of Milan is in fact a letter to the Governor of Bithynia of June 313, one of a series of letters issued by Licinius in the territory he conquered from Maximinus in 313. Both toleration and restitution had already been granted by Constantine in Gaul, Spain and Britain (in 306), and by Maxentius in Italy and Africa (in 306 [toleration] and 310 [restitution]). Galerius and Licinius had enacted toleration in the Balkans in 311, and Licinius probably extended restitution there in early 313. Thus the letters which Licinius issued in the names of himself and Constantine (as was routine for imperial documents, which were formally issued in the names of all legitimate co-rulers) were designed solely to enact toleration and restitution in Anatolia and Oriens, which had been under the rule of Maximinus.
The Edict, in the form of a joint letter to be circulated among the governors of the East, The document itself does not survive.


Saturday, January 26, 2008

Family therapyAmberg-Sulzbach
Amberg-Sulzbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. It surrounds but does not include the city of Amberg. It is bounded by (from the north and clockwise) the districts of Neustadt (Waldnaab), Schwandorf, Neumarkt, Nürnberger Land and Bayreuth.

The district is located in the geographical centre of Bavaria, 40 km east of Nuremberg. The main axis of the region is the Vils River (an affluent of the Naab) crossing the district from north to south. West of the river the land rises to the Frankish Alb, while there are gentle hills on the eastern side in the angle between Naab and Vils. The district is mainly covered by forests, especially in its western half.

Friday, January 25, 2008

Thrombophlebitis is phlebitis (vein inflammation) related to a blood clot or thrombus. When it occurs repeatedly in different locations, it is known as "Thrombophlebitis migrans" or "migrating thrombophlebitis".

Thrombophlebitis Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The following symptoms are often (but not always) associated with thrombophlebitis:

pain in the part of the body affected
skin redness or inflammation (not always present)
swelling (edema) of the extremities (ankle and foot) Symptoms
The health care provider makes the diagnosis primarily based on the appearance of the affected area. Frequent checks of the pulse, blood pressure, temperature, skin condition, and circulation may be required.
If the cause is not readily identifiable, tests may be performed to determine the cause, including the following:

Doppler ultrasound
Extremity arteriography
Blood coagulation studies Signs and tests
For more specific recommendations, see the particular condition. In general, treatment may include the following:
The patient may be advised to do the following:


  • analgesics (pain medications)
    anticoagulants or blood thinners to prevent new clot formation
    thrombolytics to dissolve an existing clot
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen to reduce pain and inflammation
    antibiotics (if infection is present)
    Support stockings and wraps to reduce discomfort
    Elevate the affected area to reduce swelling.
    Keep pressure off of the area to reduce pain and decrease the risk of further damage.
    Apply moist heat to reduce inflammation and pain.
    Surgical removal, stripping, or bypass of the vein is rarely needed but may be recommended in some situations. Treatment
    Thrombophlebitis and other forms of phlebitis usually respond to prompt medical treatment.

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Cessnock can refer to:
Cessnock, New South Wales

  • Electoral district of Cessnock, an electoral district in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, based around the area
    City of Cessnock, the Local Government Area
    Cessnock Correctional Centre, a prison in the area
    HMAS Cessnock, one of two Royal Australian Navy ships:

    • HMAS Cessnock (J175), a Bathurst class corvette
      HMAS Cessnock (FCPB 210), a Fremantle class patrol boat
      Cessnock, Glasgow

      • Cessnock subway station, an underground station in Glasgow

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

A list of henchmen from the 1971 James Bond film and novel Diamonds Are Forever from the List of James Bond henchmen.

Mister Wint and Mister Kidd
Mr. Wint and his partner Mr. Kidd are assassins working for Ernst Stavro Blofeld (it can be assumed, though the pair share no scenes with their employer). Their assignment is to kill everyone in the diamond-smuggling 'pipeline' that has been diverted to facilitate Blofeld's scheme to build a giant laser satellite. They are quite possibly psychotic, undoubtedly sadistic – photographing the body of the old lady (Mrs Whistler) they have drowned in the canals of Amsterdam, for example, and joking about sending the pictures to the primary-age children to whom she was the school teacher. They also use a large amount of proverbs (Example: Wint saying "If at first you don't succeed", followed by Kidd's reply "Try, try again Mister Wint.")
The two use numerous methods of killing their targets (or trying to), some highly creative:
Their final attempt to kill Bond and Case takes place on a cruise liner after Bond foils Blofeld's plot. They pose as stewards in the couple's suite, serving them a romantic dinner consisting of Oysters Andaluz, shashlik, tidbits, prime rib au jus and Salade Utopia. Dessert is Le Bombe Surprise - in the most literal sense, since a bomb is really hidden in it. However, Bond links the smell of Wint's cologne to his misadventure in the pipeline and quickly realizes that something is wrong. After tasting a glass of Mouton Rothschild '55, Bond casually remarks that he had expected a claret with such a grand dinner. When Mr. Wint replies that the cellars are unfortunately poorly stocked with clarets, Bond exposes the henchman's ignorance, sharply replying that Mouton Rothschild in fact is a claret.
Realizing Bond has blown their cover, the pair immediately turn against him. Mr. Kidd ignites the shashlik skewers, aiming to attack Bond while Mr. Wint strangles him. During the struggle, Bond first neutralizes Mr. Kidd by splashing Courvoisier on the flaming shashlik, setting Mr. Kidd on fire. Within seconds, he is engulfed in flames, and in desperation jumps overboard, apparently already dead as he hits the water. After Bond eliminates Mr. Kidd, Tiffany throws the dessert at Mr. Wint but she misses, and it reveals the bomb hidden in the bombe. When Wint is distracted by the sight of the bomb, Bond gains the upper hand against him, pulling the villain's coat-tails between his legs and tying his hands and the bomb together with them. Bond hoists Mr. Wint overboard, and the bomb explodes as he hits the water.
It is strongly implied in the film that the two are homosexual lovers, even holding hands in one scene. At one point in the film, Mr. Kidd remarks that Tiffany Case is attractive, only to receive a glare from Mr. Wint. Kidd then adds, "...for a lady". Mr. Wint can also be seen spraying himself with perfume (Bond later remarks that Wint smells like a "tart's handkerchief").
The archetype of the incredibly polite pair of villains has been parodied numerous times, as "Mr. Wink and Mr. Fibb" in Codename: Kids Next Door, as "Mr. Touch and Mr. Go" in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and (to a far more ridiculous extent) the characters "Fat Man and Little Boy" in Sin City. Mr. Croup and Mr. Vandemar from Neil Gaiman's Neverwhere franchise are also an example, as are Mr. Pin and Mr. Tulip from Terry Pratchett's Discworld.

Placing a scorpion down the shirt of a South African dentist.
Using a radio-controlled bomb to blow up a helicopter shortly after killing the dentist.
Sealing Bond in a coffin and sending him into a crematorium furnace. (In their dry style of humor, Kidd calls it "heart-warming", while Wint refers to it as a "glowing tribute").
Putting Bond into a length of pipeline to be buried in the desert outside Las Vegas.
Drenching Plenty O'Toole with her legs tied to a block of cement, in a swimming pool just deep enough to submerge her only up to the tip of her nose and by doing so, drowning her as slowly as possible. Film
In the novel, the duo have a less flamboyant role. As killers and "enforcers" to the Spangled Mob, it is their mission, among other things, to make sure the smuggling of the diamonds and everything connected to it go off without a hitch. If something does go wrong, Wint and Kidd (they are never referred to as "Mr." in the novels) are sent to "persuade" the perpetrators to never make a mistake again. They are obviously quite sadistic and give evidence of enjoying their jobs. This is particularly evident in a scene which Bond witnesses in a mud-bath, where they pour boiling mud over the face of a jockey who they believe has prevented a Mob-owned horse winning a race.
From London to New York City it is their job to tail whoever is smuggling the diamonds internationally to ensure that the smuggler doesn't get any ideas about going into business for himself. For this, the duo pose as American businessmen who call themselves "W. Winter" and "B. Kitteridge".
Although they are both hardened assassins, Wint is pathologically afraid of travel. When he does have to travel, he wears an identifying name tag and a sticker that says "My blood group is F". He also has to be paid a special bonus by his employers. Because of his phobia, Mr. Wint picked up the nickname "Windy" - although no one would dare call him that to his face. Kidd is nicknamed "Boofy." Felix Leiter suspects that they are both homosexual.
In a ghost town outside Las Vegas, the leading gangster, Seraffimo Spang, penetrates Bond's cover and orders Wint and Kidd to torture Bond to learn his true identity. Wint and Kidd then perform a "Brooklyn stomping," kicking Bond into unconsciousness while wearing football cleats, after which Tiffany Case helps him escape.
After they kidnap Tiffany on the Queen Elizabeth, Bond comes to her rescue by climbing down the side of the ship and diving into her cabin via the porthole. They have a fight, and Bond shoots them both. To avoid trouble, he then fakes evidence in the cabin to make it look like a murder-suicide.

List of James Bond henchmen in Diamonds Are Forever Novel

The original names of the henchmen were supposedly Wint & Gore, but Ian Fleming changed Gore to Kidd at the request of his wife's cousin, who was nicknamed "Boofy" Gore. However, the name Gore does occur in some versions of the novel.
Likewise, Kidd's original nickname was "Dolly," and appears as such in early British editions of the book.
When they detonate a helicopter early in the movie, Mr. Wint and Mr. Kidd say, "If God had wanted man to fly... he would have given him wings." This is ironic, considering that they fly later in the film.
Mr. Wint is played by Bruce Glover, the father of Crispin Glover.
There are now two diamond stores in London trading under the name 'Wint & Kidd'
In the animated series Codename: Kids Next Door, two of the KNDs enemies are named Mr. Wink and Mr. Fibb, and when they are talking to each other, they end sentences with Mr (the others last name) like in the movie.
Some fans have claimed that Kane & Lynch from the video game Kane & Lynch: Dead Men are based upon these two
In an Alternate Version found on a documentary on the Diamonds Are Forever DVD, instead of placing the Scorpion down the back of the doctor, Wint jams the scorpion into his mouth. The Censors found this too shocking and requested the scene to be changed. Trivia
In both the novel and movie, Michael (Shady) Tree was the link in the "Pipeline" who received the Diamonds once they were in America. His fate is unrevealed in the novel; he was based in New York and acted as a 'frontman'. He is a red-haired hunchback and deals with most of the 'small fry' henchmen. In the movie, he was killed by Wint and Kidd. Man: "We need Tree alive." Kidd: "That is most annoying." The man walks into Tree's dressing room to find him dead. In a deleted scene, it is revealed that he was killed with a gun disguised as a toy gun that had a "bang" sign pop out, this can be found on the ultimate edition DVD.

Shady Tree
"Critics and material I don't need. I haven't changed my act in forty years!" "How do you like me now? Some say I have the body of Rock Hudson."

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

Norbert Elias (June 22, 1897August 1, 1990) was a German sociologist of Jewish descent, who later became a British citizen.
His work focused on the relationship between power, behavior, emotion, and knowledge over time. He significantly shaped what is called process or figurational sociology. Due to historical circumstances, Elias had long remained a marginal author, until being rediscovered by a new generation of scholars in the 1970s, when he eventually became one of the most influential sociologists ever.
His late popularity can be partially attributed to the fact that his concept of large social figurations or networks explains the emergence and function of large societal structures without neglecting the aspect of individual agency. In the 1960s and 1970s, the overemphasis of structure over agency was heavily criticized about the then-dominant school of structural functionalism.
Elias' most important work is the two-volume The Civilizing Process (Über den Prozess der Zivilisation). Originally published in 1939, it was virtually ignored until its republication in 1969, when its first volume was also translated into English. The first volume traces the historical developments of the European habitus, or "second nature," the particular individual psychic structures molded by social attitudes. Elias traced how post-medieval European standards regarding violence, sexual behaviour, bodily functions, table manners and forms of speech were gradually transformed by increasing thresholds of shame and repugnance, working outward from a nucleus in court etiquette. The internalized "self-restraint" imposed by increasingly complex networks of social connections developed the "psychological" self-perceptions that Freud recognized as the "super-ego." The second volume of The Civilizing Process looks into the causes of these processes and finds them in the increasingly centralized Early Modern state and the increasingly differentiated and interconnected web of society.
When Elias' work found a larger audience in the 1960s, at first his analysis of the process was misunderstood as an extension of discredited "social Darwinism," the idea of upward "progress" was dismissed by reading it as consecutive history rather than a metaphor for a social process.
The Quest for Excitement, written by Norbert Elias with Eric Dunning, and published in 1986 has proved a seminal work for the sociology of sport, and of football in particular. The Centre for the sociology of sport at the University of Leicester, England is host to a number of important sociologists who work on the Elias and Dunning tradition.

Norbert Elias Biography
Elias was born on June 22, 1897 in Wroclaw (Breslau) in Silesia to Hermann and Sophie Elias. His father was a businessman in the textile industry and his mother, as usual at the time, a housewife. After passing the abitur in 1915 he volunteered for the German army in World War I and was employed as a telegrapher, first at the Eastern front, then at the Western front. After a suffering nervous breakdown in 1917, he was declared unfit for service and was posted to Wroclaw as a medical orderly. The same year, Elias began studying philosophy, psychology and medicine at the University of Wroclaw, in addition spending a term each at the universities of Heidelberg (where he attended lectures by Karl Jaspers) and Freiburg in 1919 and 1920. He quit medicine in 1919 after passing the preliminary examination (Physikum). To finance his studies after his father's fortune had been reduced by hyperinflation, he took up a job as the head of the export department in a local hardware factory 1922. In 1924, he graduated with a doctoral dissertation in philosophy entitled Idee und Individuum ("Idea and Individual") supervised by Richard Hönigswald, a representative of Neo-Kantianism. Disappointed about the absence of the social aspect from Neo-Kantianism, which had led to a serious dispute with his supervisor about his dissertation, Elias decided to turn to sociology for his further studies.
During his Breslau years, until 1925, Elias was deeply involved in the German Zionist movement, and acted as one of the leading intellectuals within the German-Jewish youth movement "Blau-Weiss" (Blue-White). During these years he got acquainted with other young zionists like Erich Fromm, Leo Strauss, Leo Löwenthal and Gershom Scholem. In 1925, Elias moved to Heidelberg, where Alfred Weber accepted him as a candidate for a habilitation (second book project) on the development of modern science, entitled Die Bedeutung der Florentiner Gesellschaft und Kultur für die Entstehung der Wissenschaft (The Significance of Florentine Society and Culture for the Development of Science). In 1930 Elias chose to cancel this project and followed Karl Mannheim to become his assistant at the University of Frankfurt. However, after the Nazi take-over in early 1933, Mannheim's sociological institute was forced to close. The already submitted habilitation thesis entitled Der höfische Mensch ("The Man of the Court") was never formally accepted and not published until 1969. In 1933, Elias fled to Paris. His elderly parents remained in Breslau, where his father died in 1940; his mother was deported to Auschwitz, where she probably was killed in 1941.
During his two years in Paris, Elias worked as a private scholar supported by a scholarship from the Amsterdam Steunfonds Foundation. In 1935, he moved on to Great Britain, where he worked on his magnum opus, The Civilizing Process, until 1939, now supported by a scholarship from a relief organization for Jewish refugees. In 1939, he met up with his former supervisor Mannheim at the London School of Economics, where he obtained a position as Senior Research Assistant. In 1940, when an invasion of Britain by German forces appeared imminent, Elias was detained at internment camps in Liverpool and on the Isle of Man for eight months, on account of his being German (even as Jew). During his internment he organized political lectures and staged a drama he had written himself, Die Ballade vom armen Jakob (The Ballad of Poor Jacob) (eventually published in 1987).
Upon his release in 1941, he moved to Cambridge. He taught evening classes for the Workers' Educational Association (the adult education organization), and later evening extension courses in sociology, psychology, economics and economic history at the University of Leicester. He also held occasional lectureships at other institutions of higher learning. While in Cambridge, he trained as a group therapist under the psychoanalyst S. H. Foulkes, another German emigrant, with whom he co-founded the Group Analytic Society in 1952 and worked as a group therapist.
In 1954, he moved to Leicester, where he became a lecturer at, and contributed to the development of, the University's Department of Sociology, until his retirement in 1962. At Leicester, his students included Martin Albrow and Anthony Giddens.
From 1962 to 1964, Elias taught as professor emeritus of sociology at the University of Ghana in Legon near Accra. After his return to Europe in 1965, he based himself in Amsterdam but travelled much as a visiting professor, mainly at German universities. His reputation and popularity grew immensely after the republication of The Civilising Process in 1969. From 1978 to 1984 he worked at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Bielefeld.
Elias was the first ever laureate of both the Theodor W. Adorno Award (1977) and the European Amalfi Prize for Sociology and Social Sciences (1987).
Outside his sociological work he sporadically also wrote poetry and essays.
Elias died at his home in Amsterdam on 1 August 1990.

Monday, January 21, 2008

Madurese people
6.8 million (2000 census)
The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. Common features of most Madurese throughout the archipelago include Islamic religion and the use of the Madurese language.
The Madurese are a religious ethnic, mostly joint with Nahdlatul Ulama, a moderate Muslim organization in Indonesia. Pesantren has a pivotal role in Madurese life.
While the Madurese have roots on Madura, off the northeastern coast of Java, the majority of Madurese do not now live on that island. The Madurese people have migrated out of Madura over several hundred years, mostly driven by poor agricultural resources in their home island. The majority have settled on Java, where an estimated nine million Madurese live, especially in East Java where they form about half the population.
The Madurese were also major clients of the government transmigration programs of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, through which they settled in relatively sparsely populated areas of Indonesia's other islands, especially Kalimantan and Sumatra. As a result of this program, many regions of Indonesia have communities of former transmigrants and their descendants that maintain their Madurese identity. Some of these migrant groups have been the subject of conflict with indigenous communities. The best-publicicized conflict has been on Kalimantan, where thousands were killed in fighting between the Madurese and the indigenous Dayaks during the late 1990s.
Family is important to the Madurese and they commonly live in villages that function around an Islamic religious center. According to Islamic law, a man may have more than one wife. Marriage proposals are usually made by the groom's parents, preferably to a first or second cousin. If the proposal is accepted, the bride's parents are then presented with the "bride price", which is usually cattle. The groom's parents then set the date for the upcoming wedding. Newlywed couples often live with the bride's family.
Because the island of Madura has very poor soil, farming is not important in Madurese culture. As a result, the Madurese tend not to farm on other islands with very good soil, such as Java, and opt to herd cattle, fish, or sail instead. A common nickname for the Madurese is "cowboys" of Indonesia. Cattle are an important part of the culture, and bull-racing is one of their favorite sports.
Islam is an integral part of the social, political and economic life of the Madurese. Although the Madurese people are orthodox Sunni Muslims in many ways, there are many folk beliefs in seeking protection in life through the magic of either appeasing or controlling good and bad spirits. They have a strong belief in spirits, the use of amulets, black and white magic and the worship of ancestors.

Sunday, January 20, 2008

Telecom is an abbreviation of telecommunication.
Colloquially it also refers to various telecommunications companies worldwide, among them state-owned national telecommunications monopolies, or companies derived from such monopolies after privatization. The term is now trademarked by various companies in their local jurisdiction, albeit always with a qualifier of locality (e.g. 'Deutsche' Telecom ), since 1985.
Telecom is also the name of a New York - based rock band active since 2004 in the United States.
Telecommunications companies using the term in their name:

Aliant Telecom, Canadian
Telecom Australia, a forebear of Telstra
Brasil Telecom, Brazilian
British Telecom
Deutsche Telekom, German
France Télécom
LG Telecom, South Korean
SK Telecom, South Korean
Telecom Finland, later Sonera, now part of TeliaSonera
Telecom Italia, Italian
Telkom Indonesia
Telekom Malaysia
Telecom New Zealand
Telkom (South Africa)
Portugal Telecom
Telecom Colombia
Telecom Argentina
Hutchison Telecoms, Australian
Telekom Srbija, Serbian
Telekom Srpske, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Maroc Telecom (also IAM), Moroccan
Pakistan Telecom
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd., Indian

Saturday, January 19, 2008

Our Lady of Holy Cross College
Our Lady of Holy Cross College is a small, coeducational, Catholic college in New Orleans, Louisiana. It was founded in 1916 as a two year normal school by the Marianites of Holy Cross. Its original location was in the Bywater area of New Orleans. It became a 4 year institution in 1938. In 1947, a 40 acre parcel of land in the Algiers area of New Orleans on the west bank of the Mississippi River was donated to the Marianites. The college completed a move across the river to this new site in 1960. (Its area was later reduced by a sale.) Men were first admitted in 1967.
Today, Holy Cross College, built in the Southern Colonial style, sits on a 15 acre campus with many oak trees in a middle-class residential section of Algiers. The college offers undergraduate degrees in education, nursing, business, health sciences, humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences. Master's degrees are offered in education, teaching, counseling, and theology. The college enrolls roughly 1,450 students, and is fully accredited.

Friday, January 18, 2008

The English Bill of Rights 1689 is an Act of the Parliament of England (1 Will. & Mar. sess. 2 c. 2) with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and also known by its short title, the Bill of Rights. It is one of the basic documents of English constitutional law, alongside Magna Carta, the Act of Settlement and the Parliament Acts. It also forms part of the law of some other Commonwealth nations, such as New Zealand and Canada. A separate but similar document applies in Scotland: the Claim of Right.
The Bill of Rights 1689 is largely a statement of certain positive rights that its authors considered that citizens and/or residents of a constitutional monarchy ought to have. It asserts the Subject's right to petition the Monarch and the Subject's right to bear arms for defence. It also sets out (or in the view of its writers, restates) certain constitutional requirements where the actions of the Crown require the consent of the governed as represented in Parliament. In this respect, it differs from other "bills of rights," including the United States Bill of Rights, though many elements of the first eight amendments to the U.S. Constitution echo its contents. This is in part due to the uncodified constitutional traditions of the UK, whereby the English Bill of Rights forms a list of rights in respect of the people as represented in Parliament, in addition to those rights already provided for individuals as set out in Magna Carta.

Bill of Rights 1689 Background
The basic tenets of the Bill of Rights 1689 are:

Englishmen, as embodied by Parliament, possessed certain immutable civil and political rights. These included:

  • freedom from royal interference with the law (the Sovereign was forbidden to establish his own courts or to act as a judge himself)
    freedom from taxation by royal prerogative, without agreement by Parliament
    freedom to petition the Monarch
    freedom from a peace-time standing army, without agreement by Parliament
    freedom [for Protestants] to have arms for defence, as allowed by law
    freedom to elect members of Parliament without interference from the Sovereign
    the freedom of speech in Parliament, in that proceedings in Parliament were not to be questioned in the courts or in any body outside Parliament itself (the basis of modern parliamentary privilege)
    freedom from cruel and unusual punishments, and excessive bail
    freedom from fines and forfeitures without trial
    Certain acts of James II were specifically named and declared illegal on this basis.
    The flight of James from England in the wake of the Glorious Revolution amounted to abdication of the throne.
    Roman Catholics could not be king or queen of England since "it hath been found by experience that it is inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this protestant kingdom to be governed by a papist prince". The Sovereign was required to swear a coronation oath to maintain the Protestant religion.
    William and Mary were the successors of James.
    Succession should pass to the heirs of Mary, then to Mary's sister Princess Anne of Denmark and her heirs, then to any heirs of William by a later marriage.
    The Sovereign was required to summon Parliament frequently, later reinforced by the Triennial Act 1694.

Thursday, January 17, 2008

San Carlos, San Diego, California
San Carlos is a middle-class neighborhood in the eastern area of San Diego, California. It borders the neighborhoods: Del Cerro, Lake Murray, Tierrasanta, Navajo, Allied Gardens, the city of La Mesa and Mission Trails.
San Carlos is geographically defined largely by its proximity to Mission Trails Regional Park, and to the manmade reservoir Lake Murray. Patrick Henry High School serves all three neighbouring communities of San Carlos, Allied Gardens, and Del Cerro.
Community centers include the high school, an eponymous community park and recreation center, and a performance venue and community room called Casey's Place.

Local Newspaper

Mission Times Courier, community newspaper delivered to and covering San Carlos news

Wednesday, January 16, 2008

The ASEAN ParaGames is a biannual multi-sport event held after every Southeast Asian Games for athletes with physical disabilities. The games are participated by the 11 countries located in Southeast Asia. The games, patterned after the Paralympics, includes mobility disabilities, amputees, visual disabilities and those with cerebral palsy.
The ASEAN ParaGames is under the regulation of the ASEAN Para Sports Federation (APSF). The games are hosted by the same country where the SEA Games took place.

ASEAN ParaGames Logo

Host Cities of the ASEAN ParaGames

To promote friendship and solidarity among persons with disabilities in the ASEAN region through sports;
To promote and develop sports for the differently abled;
To rehabilitate and integrate persons with disability into mainstream society through sports.

Tuesday, January 15, 2008

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast owing to its use since ancient times in baking and brewing. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skins of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model prokaryote. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5–10 micrometres in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding.
It is useful in studying the cell cycle because it is easy to culture, but, as a eukaryote, it shares the complex internal cell structure of plants and animals. S. cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic genome that was completely sequenced. The yeast genome database [1] is highly annotated and remains a very important tool for developing basic knowledge about the function and organization of eukaryotic cell genetics and physiology. Another important S. cerevisiae database is maintained by the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences [2]. The genome is composed of about 13,000,000 base pairs and 6,275 genes, although only about 5,800 of these are believed to be true functional genes. It is estimated that yeast shares about 23% of its genome with that of humans.
"Saccharomyces" derives from Greek, and means "sugar mold". "Cerevisiae" comes from Latin, and means "of beer". Other names for the organism are:
This species is also the main source of nutritional yeast and yeast extract.

Brewer's yeast (the apostrophe may be missing or after the s), though other species are also used in brewing
Ale yeast
Top-fermenting yeast
Baker's yeast (the apostrophe may be omitted or placed after the s)
Budding yeast Life cycle

Main article: Mating of yeast Mating
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used model organism in science, and therefore also one of the most studied (along with E. coli). S. cerevisiae has obtained this important position because of its established use in industry (e.g. beer, bread and wine fermentation, ethanol production). Additionally, yeasts are comparatively similar in structure to human cells, both being eukaryotic, in contrast to the prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea). Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes. The petite mutation in S. cerevisiae is of particular interest.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae In science
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a top-fermenting yeast. It is one of the major types of yeast used in the brewing of beer (along with Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Brettanomyces sp.), so called because during the fermentation process it rises to top of the fermentation vessel. Beers that use top-fermenting yeast are called ales, and for that reason these yeasts are also sometimes called "ale yeast".
Top-fermenting yeasts are unable to ferment some types of sugars, and the resulting beer is sweeter and "fruitier".

Virus L-A

Saccharomyces uvarum

Monday, January 14, 2008

Kampung Baru is a large Malay area near downtown Kuala Lumpur.

Kampung Baru, Kuala LumpurKampung Baru, Kuala Lumpur Notable Landmarks

Tan Sri S.M. Salim - Malaysian singers
Tan Sri SM Nasimuddin SM Amin - Naza Group Chairman

Sunday, January 13, 2008

County Borough of Warley
Warley was, from 1966 to 1974, a county borough and civil parish formed by the combination of the existing county borough of Smethwick with the non-county boroughs of Oldbury and Rowley Regis, by recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England. The first Mayor of Warley was Councillor Wilfred Carter JP (1915-1998).
Smethwick and Rowley Regis had been part of Staffordshire, while Oldbury was considered part of Worcestershire (having been transferred from Shropshire in 1844). The new county borough was placed entirely in the geographical county of Worcestershire. Warley took its name from Warley Woods, an area straddling the Smethwick/Oldbury boundary : a civil parish of Warley had previously existed.
The Oakham area of Dudley and Tividale area of Tipton were also incorporated into Warley, and adopted the Oldbury B69 postcode.
On the formation of the West Midlands metropolitan county in 1974, the county borough of Warley merged with the county borough of West Bromwich to form the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell.
Famous people from Warley include the comedian Frank Skinner, the actress Julie Walters and Fleetwood Mac member Christine McVie.

Saturday, January 12, 2008

The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of mainland Scotland.
The group includes Shetland, Fair Isle and Orkney. Sometimes Stroma is also included.

Northern Isles Culture and politics
The Northern Isles are usually separated for political purposes, but they come under the Orkney and Shetland constituency in Westminster.
Due to their history, the islands have a Norse, rather than a Gaelic flavour, and have historic links with the Faroes and Iceland, Denmark and Norway.

Friday, January 11, 2008

WikiProject Sociology or the Sociology Portal may be able to help recruit one.Social analysisSocial analysis If a more appropriate WikiProject or portal exists, please adjust this template accordingly. Social analysis is a term that is used in sociology [1], anthropology and development studies, often in relation to social justice [2], particularly regarding poverty alleviation. "Social analyst" is also a phrase used to describe social commentators. The comedian Ruby Wax has been described as a social analyst.[3]

Thursday, January 10, 2008

The Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service (Welsh: Gwasanaeth Tân ac Achub Canolbarth a Gorllewin Cymru) is the fire and rescue service covering the Welsh principal areas of Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Neath Port Talbot, Pembrokeshire, Powys and Swansea.
The service was created in 1996 by the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 which reformed Welsh local government. It was created by a merger of the earlier Dyfed, Powys and West Glamorgan fire brigades covering a predominantly rural area of 4,500 square miles (11,700 km²). It has 57 fire stations, and around 1,400 staff.
The fire authority which administers the service is a joint-board, made up of councillors appointed from Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Neath Port Talbot, Pembrokeshire, Powys and Swansea councils.
Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service
Fire stations
Fire stations of the M&WWFRS are located in the following places They are a mixture of full time, part time, retained and volunteer stations.

Builth Wells
Llandrindod Wells
Llanfair Caereinion
Milford Haven
New Quay
Newcastle Emlyn
Pembroke Dock
Port Talbot
Seven Sisters
St Davids
Swansea Central
Swansea West

Wednesday, January 9, 2008

Rote learning vs. thinking
However, with some material rote learning is the only way to learn it in a timely manner. For example, when learning the Greek alphabet, the vocabulary of a foreign language or the conjugation of foreign irregular verbs, since they have no inner structure or their inner complexity is too subtle to be learned explicitly in a short time. However, as in the alphabet example, learning where the alphabet came from helps one to grasp the concept of it and therefore memorize it. (Native speakers and speakers with a lot of experience usually get an intuitive grasp of those subtle rules and are able to conjugate even irregular verbs that they have never heard before.)
The source transmission could be auditory or visual, and is usually in the form of short bits such as rhyming phrases (but rhyming is not a prerequisite), rather than chunks of text large enough to make lengthy paragraphs. Brevity is not always the case with rote learning. For example, many Americans can recite their National Anthem, or even the much more lengthy Preamble to the United States Constitution. Their ability to do so can be attributed, at least in some part, to having been assimilated by rote learning. The repeated stimulus of hearing it recited in public, on TV, at a sporting event, etc. has caused the mere sound of the phrasing of the words and inflections to be "written", as if hammer-to-stone, into the long-term memory.

Rote learning Rote learning as a necessity
The system is widely practiced in schools across India, Pakistan, China, Singapore, Japan, Romania and Greece. Some of these nations are admired for their high test scores in international comparisons with advanced nations like the United States. At the same time, progressive reforms such as Outcomes-based education which have put an emphasis on eliminating rote learning in favor of deep understanding have produced a storm of controversy of outcry as a generation of students is failing new math assessments which were aimed at increasing math performance. Some texts such as the widely controversial TERC completely omit memorization or even presentation of standard elementary arithmetic methods.

By nation and culture
New curriculum standards from the NCTM and National Science Education Standards call for more emphasis on active learning, critical thinking and communication over recall of facts. In many fields such as mathematics and science it is still a matter of controversy as to whether rote memorization of facts such as the multiplication table or boiling point of water are still necessary. Some education agencies which embraced the new standards are revisiting in response to sharp criticism from those who believe future generations should learn at least as much knowledge as previous generations have been taught, rather than just "how to think". It is countered that thinking skills alone will not be useful without a base of memorized facts to work with, and that it is quicker to recall from memory than to have to refer to a calculator, reference book, or internet article.

In the United States
In the United Nations Arab human development report for 2004 the (Arab) researchers claim that rote learning is a major contributing factor to the lack of progress in science and research & development in the Arab countries. Asian nations, though scoring well on skill tests, are also studying standards of nations such as the United States to increase innovation and creativity. Studies of math skill advantages of Asian students show them to excel in basic skills, but not in complex problem solving not easily solved with standard methods.

Rote learning is prevalent in many religious schools throughout the world. For example, Jewish yeshivot or chederim use this approach when teaching children Torah and Talmud, Muslim madrasas utilize it in teaching Koran, etc. It is used in various degrees, and more so, although far from exclusively, at a younger age, the main purpose being to memorize and retain as much textual material as possible, to prepare a student for a more analytical learning in the future.


Tuesday, January 8, 2008

Woman Police Constable (WPC) Yvonne Joyce Fletcher (1959–17 April 1984) was a British police officer who was shot and killed in London's St James's Square during a protest outside the Libyan embassy. The shooting resulted in a police siege of the embassy which lasted for eleven days, and the breakdown of diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Libya. Her death was the third murder or manslaughter of a mainland British policewoman on duty, only 18 months after the first.
Fletcher was born in Wiltshire and joined the Metropolitan Police in 1977. At 5ft 2¾in (159cm) tall, she was believed to be Britain's shortest police officer (at the time, police officers were generally subject to minimum height requirements).

Yvonne Fletcher The protests
At 10:18 on the morning of 17 April 1984 shots were fired into the group of protestors, striking eleven people including WPC Fletcher. The unarmed officer died of a stomach wound approximately an hour after arriving at hospital..
It is generally accepted that WPC Fletcher was killed by someone who opened fire with a Sterling submachine gun on the protestors from inside the Libyan embassy at 5 St James's Square.
WPC Fletcher's hat and four other policemen's helmets were left lying in the square during the subsequent siege, and images of them were repeatedly shown on British and international television in the days that followed. The British public reacted with horror to the third murder of a British policewoman in 18 months.

The shooting
Following the shooting, the bureau was surrounded by armed police for eleven days, in the longest police siege in London's history. Meanwhile, Gaddafi expressed 'disgust' that his diplomats were not being permitted diplomatic immunity, and Libyan soldiers surrounded Britain's embassy in Tripoli in response.
The British Government eventually resolved the incident by allowing the embassy staff to depart the bureau (on the day of Yvonne's funeral) and then expelling them from the country. The UK then broke off diplomatic relations with Libya.

Subsequent events
The official and generally accepted view that WPC Fletcher was fired upon and killed by someone in the Libyan embassy has been questioned by certain parties. Prime Minister Tony Blair was questioned on this subject by former MP Tam Dalyell in parliament on 24 June 1997. The Guardian of 23 July 1997 reported a parliamentary speech by Dalyell concerned mainly with the Lockerbie bombing, but crucially referring to Fletcher's murder in the following extract:
"With the agreement of Queenie Fletcher, her mother, I raised with the Home Office the three remarkable programmes that were made by Fulcrum, and their producer, Richard Bellfield, called Murder at St James's. Television speculation is one thing, but this was rather more than that, because on film was George Stiles, the senior ballistics officer in the British Army, who said that, as a ballistics expert, he believed that the WPC could not have been killed from the second floor of the Libyan embassy, as was suggested.
"Also on film was my friend, Hugh Thomas, who talked about the angles at which bullets could enter bodies, and the position of those bodies. Hugh Thomas was, for years, the consultant surgeon of the Royal Victoria hospital in Belfast, and I suspect he knows more about bullets entering bodies than anybody else in Britain. Above that was Professor Bernard Knight, who, on and off, has been the Home Office pathologist for 25 years. When Bernard Knight gives evidence on film that the official explanation could not be, it is time for an investigation."
Participants who appeared in Murder at St James's, highlighted such issues as the velocity of the bullet and the angle at which it entered WPC Fletcher's body. The programme suggested a contentious theory which alleged that elements of British MI5, American CIA and Israeli Mossad intelligence, installed in a penthouse above 8 St James's Square, used a high-velocity weapon such as the Heckler and Koch G3-A4 to fire a 3-shot burst at their target. According to this theory, WPC Fletcher was murdered to portray Gaddafi's Libya in a bad light and, perhaps, to provoke the severing of bi-lateral diplomatic relations.
Fletcher's murder would later become a major factor in prime minister Margaret Thatcher's decision to allow U.S. President Ronald Reagan to launch the USAF bombing raid on Libya in 1986 from American bases in Britain.

Early reports suggested that WPC Fletcher's murderer had been hanged shortly after getting back to Libya in 1984.


Monday, January 7, 2008

Book of Jeremiah
The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaism's Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianity's Old Testament. It was originally written in a complex and poetic Hebrew (apart from verse 10:11, curiously written in Aramaic), recording the words and events surrounding the life of the Jewish prophet Jeremiah who lived at the time of the destruction of Solomon's Temple (587/6 BC) in Jerusalem during the fall of the Kingdom of Judah at the hands of Babylonia.

Joshua (Jesus Nave)
1–2 Samuel
1–2 Kings
1–2 Chronicles
Ezra (see Esdras for other names)
Song of Solomon
Minor prophets
1 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
Wisdom (of Solomon)
Ben Sira
Baruch, includes Letter of Jeremiah (Additions to Jeremiah)
Additions to Daniel
Additions to Esther
1 Esdras (see Esdras for other names)
3 Maccabees
4 Maccabees (in appendix but not canonical)
Prayer of Manasseh
Psalm 151
2 Esdras
1–3 Meqabyan
4 Baruch
Psalms 152–155
2 Baruch
Malachi Sulfate The Prophet Jeremiah
Some commentators have divided the book into twenty-three subsections, and perceived its contents as organized into in five sub-sections or "books". (e.g. Jamieson, Faussett and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible)
In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added three sections, viz., ch. 37-39; 40-43; and 44.

The introduction, ch. 1.
Scorn for the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections, (1.) ch. 2; (2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.) ch. 14-17:18; (6.) ch. 17:19-ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24.
A general review of all nations, foreseeing their destruction, in two sections, (1.) ch. 46-49; (2.) ch. 25; with a historical appendix of three sections, (1.) ch. 26; (2.) ch. 27; (3.) ch. 28, 29.
Two sections picturing the hopes of better times, (1.) ch. 30, 31; (2.) ch. 32,33; to which is added a historical appendix in three sections, (1.) ch. 34:1-7; (2.) ch. 34:8-22; (3.) ch. 35.
The conclusion, in two sections, (1.) ch. 36; (2.) ch. 45. Septuagint version
The Book of Jeremiah has also been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in cave 4 in Qumran. This text, in Hebrew, corresponds to the older Septuagint Greek version, rather than the later Masoretic standard that was finalized in the 2nd century AD. This discovery has shed much light on the differences between the two versions; while it was previously maintained that the Greek Septuagint (the version used by the earliest Christians) was only a poor translation, it is now widely thought that the Masoretic edition represents a substantial rewriting of the original Hebrew, unless there had always been two different versions of the text.

Online text, translations, and commentaries

Nebo-Sarsekim Tablet