Monday, January 21, 2008
6.8 million (2000 census)
The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. Common features of most Madurese throughout the archipelago include Islamic religion and the use of the Madurese language.
The Madurese are a religious ethnic, mostly joint with Nahdlatul Ulama, a moderate Muslim organization in Indonesia. Pesantren has a pivotal role in Madurese life.
While the Madurese have roots on Madura, off the northeastern coast of Java, the majority of Madurese do not now live on that island. The Madurese people have migrated out of Madura over several hundred years, mostly driven by poor agricultural resources in their home island. The majority have settled on Java, where an estimated nine million Madurese live, especially in East Java where they form about half the population.
The Madurese were also major clients of the government transmigration programs of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, through which they settled in relatively sparsely populated areas of Indonesia's other islands, especially Kalimantan and Sumatra. As a result of this program, many regions of Indonesia have communities of former transmigrants and their descendants that maintain their Madurese identity. Some of these migrant groups have been the subject of conflict with indigenous communities. The best-publicicized conflict has been on Kalimantan, where thousands were killed in fighting between the Madurese and the indigenous Dayaks during the late 1990s.
Family is important to the Madurese and they commonly live in villages that function around an Islamic religious center. According to Islamic law, a man may have more than one wife. Marriage proposals are usually made by the groom's parents, preferably to a first or second cousin. If the proposal is accepted, the bride's parents are then presented with the "bride price", which is usually cattle. The groom's parents then set the date for the upcoming wedding. Newlywed couples often live with the bride's family.
Because the island of Madura has very poor soil, farming is not important in Madurese culture. As a result, the Madurese tend not to farm on other islands with very good soil, such as Java, and opt to herd cattle, fish, or sail instead. A common nickname for the Madurese is "cowboys" of Indonesia. Cattle are an important part of the culture, and bull-racing is one of their favorite sports.
Islam is an integral part of the social, political and economic life of the Madurese. Although the Madurese people are orthodox Sunni Muslims in many ways, there are many folk beliefs in seeking protection in life through the magic of either appeasing or controlling good and bad spirits. They have a strong belief in spirits, the use of amulets, black and white magic and the worship of ancestors.
Posted by bushganizer258 at 9:34 AM